Journal of Mahatma Gandhi University of Medical Sciences and Technology

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2020 | January-April | Volume 5 | Issue 1

EDITORIAL

GN Saxena

Editorial

[Year:2020] [Month:January-April] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jmgumst-5-1-vi  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Original Article

Anjana Sharma, Shehreen Akhtar, Bushra Fiza, Maheep Sinha

Study of Lipid Profile and Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Breast Cancer Patients

[Year:2020] [Month:January-April] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:1 - 3]

Keywords: Carcinogenesis, Carcinoma, Lipids, Lipoproteins, Malignancy

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0114  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)] in patients with breast cancer and compared them with healthy individuals as a control group. Materials and methods: In the present study, 100 women included 50 breast cancer patients with age >18 years and 50 controls with similar age range were assessed for CEA and lipid profile. Result: The present study has demonstrated that the levels of CEA, TC, LDL, VLDL, and TG were significantly higher and the levels of HDL were lower in patients with breast cancer. Conclusion: The study concluded that CEA levels were higher in the case group and it is one of the most commonly expressed biological markers in breast cancer patients and when lipid profile was compared between breast cancer patients and the control group, then, TC, LDL, VLDL, and TG were significantly higher and the levels of HDL were lower in patients with breast cancer.

Original Article

Suresh Sharma, Shantnu Sharma

Sexual Dimorphism in the Permanent Maxillary First Molar Teeth in the Rajasthan Population

[Year:2020] [Month:January-April] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:4 - 8]

Keywords: Buccolingual, Mesiodistal, Odontological, Sexual dimorphism

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0119  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Sex estimation in forensic science is an essential step for medicolegal purposes. Teeth are an excellent material for anthropological, odontological, genetic, and forensic investigations as they are known to resist a variety of ante-mortem and post-mortem insults. Sexual dimorphism is an indicator of gender differences that can be observed in several aspects of the human skeleton such as the pelvis, cranium, femur, humerus, canines, and other structures. Maxillary first molars are the first permanent teeth to erupt into the oral cavity at the mean age of 6–7 years and are less commonly impacted as compared to canines. The purpose of this study was to indicate whether sexual dimorphism also exists in the first maxillary molar of humans. Aim: To determine the sexual dimorphism in the permanent maxillary first molar teeth using the mesiodistal and buccolingual crown width. Materials and methods: The present study was performed on 80 patients from the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jaipur. Mesiodistal and buccolingual width were measured on the basis of intraoral examination and plaster modal with the help of Vernier caliper. Sexual dimorphism (in percentage) was calculated from these measured parameters. Results: The mean values of right and left mesiodistal width and buccolingual width were less for females than for males and the differences were statistically significant for buccolingual width but nonsignificant for mesiodistal width. The sexual dimorphism was slightly greater on the right side than the left side. Buccolingual width of right maxillary molar teeth shows maximum sexual dimorphism among all measurements (both intraoral 5.13% and cast 5.18%). Conclusion: This study signifies the possible role of morphometric study of canine teeth in estimation of gender and it can be used in forensic investigations where gender determination of skeletal remains is difficult.

Original Article

Akanksha Gupta, Surabhi Tyagi, Mohan Lal Yadav

Association of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology with Histopathology and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

[Year:2020] [Month:January-April] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:9 - 15]

Keywords: Fine needle aspiration cytology, FNAC sensitivity, Histopathology, Specificity, Thyroid gland, Thyroid-stimulating hormone

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0121  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Diseases of the thyroid gland include both benign and malignant conditions. Benign conditions include goiter, thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma. Malignant conditions include follicular, papillary, medullary, anaplastic carcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid gland is the first-line diagnostic test for the evaluation of diffuse thyroid lesions as well as thyroid nodules. The main purpose it serves is in confirming benign lesions and avoiding surgery in benign lesions. The most common investigations, a patient of thyroid lesion undergoes, include thyroid assay and FNAC. Materials and methods: This prospective hospital-based observational study includes all patients from January 2019 to June 2019, with thyroid lesions who will undergo FNAC, excisional biopsy of thyroid, and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In the department of pathology Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Sitapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan). Results: The study was undertaken on 60 patients with clinically thyroid lesions during a period of approximately January 2019 to June 2019. Most thyroid lesions in our study were benign (62%). Out of 39 cytological benign lesions, 2 on histopathological follow-up were found malignant, i.e., 5%, and the rest 37 cases were found benign, i.e., 95%. All of the 16 cytological malignant lesions on histopathological follow-up were found malignant, i.e., 100%. All of the five cytologically suspicious for malignancy were found malignant on histopathological follow-up, i.e., 100%. In the present study, maximum number of benign cases, i.e., 14 cases (38%), were found to have serum TSH levels in the range of 0.40–1.39 μIU/mL, and the maximum number of malignant, i.e., 13 cases (53%), were found TSH in the range of 5 μIU/mL or more on the basis histopathological diagnosis. In the present study, maximum number of benign, i.e., 15 cases (38.4%), were found to have TSH in the range of 0.40–1.39 μIU/mL, and a maximum number of malignant cases, i.e., 12 (57.14%), were found in the TSH range of 5 μIU/mL or more on the basis cytology diagnosis. Conclusion: There is a significant association between TSH and malignancy, TSH within high normal range and higher serum concentration TSH both are associated with a higher risk of thyroid malignancy.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Tushar Prabha, Rohit Singh, Sankalp Arora

Role of Grayscale and Color Doppler Ultrasonography in Evaluation of Scrotal Pathologies

[Year:2020] [Month:January-April] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:16 - 22]

Keywords: Epididymitis, Funiculitis, Gray scale, Orchitis, Scrotal

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0123  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: To study the spectrum of sonographic findings of various scrotal swellings and to assess the efficacy of grayscale and color Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of scrotal lesions. Materials and methods: The group under study was comprised of 100 patients of all age groups with acute scrotal pain, painless, or painful scrotal swelling. All patients were scanned with the linear probe on the ultrasound machines GE Voluson S6, Toshiba Xario 100/Toshiba Acuson X 300 from January 2015 to November 2016. Results: There were 128 various sonographic findings in total, at the final diagnosis, as some of the patients had more than one findings. Hydrocele was the most frequent fluid collection, one with the fluid being confined to the tunica vaginalis cavity (92.3%). Varicocele comprised 11% of the total number of cases. At the final diagnosis, there were 11 cases of orchitis (57.1%), some of the patients had more than one of the above three pathologies in different combinations. An incidence of inguinoscrotal hernia was noted in 8%. Conclusion: High-resolution sonography with color Doppler imaging could reliably define the morphological features and vascularity of scrotal lesions. Sonography was highly accurate in evaluating the consistency of scrotal mass—solid or cystic. Color Doppler was found extremely sensitive in the diagnosis and differentiation of testicular torsion and inflammation especially in the case of equivocal grayscale findings. Varicoceles were accurately diagnosed using color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). The present study concludes that high-resolution sonography should be used as a first-line investigation. CDFI adds useful information and complement grayscale sonography in reaching a quick and correct diagnosis.

CASE REPORT

Pooja Sen, Ashwini B Prasad, Prachi Mital, Deepak Raisingani, Deeksha Khurana, Harshit Srivastava

Maxillary Second Molar with a Rare Palatal Root Canal Morphology: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:January-April] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:23 - 25]

Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, Maxillary second molar, Root canal treatment, Two palatal canals

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0118  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Knowledge of the root canal anatomy and its variations is essential for successful completion of the endodontic treatment. Root canal treatment of maxillary second molars with aberrant canal configuration can be challenging. The incidence of two palatal canals in a palatal root is quite rare in maxillary molars. The novel diagnostic aids such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) help in the successful management of such cases. This case report describes the successful diagnosis and treatment of a maxillary second molar with two palatal canals, merging at the apical third of the root.

CASE REPORT

Akansha Jharwal, Deepak Raisingani, Ashwini B Prasad, Pooja Sen, Charu Thanvi, Shaleen Sogani

Endodontic Management of Mandibular First Premolar with Type IV Root Canal: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:January-April] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:26 - 30]

Keywords: Abnormal morphology, Mandibular first premolar, Root canal morphology, Root canal therapy

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0120  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology, appropriate assessment of the pulp chamber floor, and critical interpretation of radiographs are foundation for successful root canal therapy. Mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having an aberrant anatomy, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Therefore, clinician should be aware of the configuration of the pulp system as the incidence of having two roots in these teeth is quite rare. These two case reports present the clinical management of mandibular first premolar having two roots bifurcated at the mid-root level.

CASE REPORT

Shimiyan Debbarma, Anshuman Jamdade, Satyapal Yadav, Neeraj K Yadav

Chronic Hyperplastic and Erythematous Candidiasis Induced by Ill-fitting Complete Denture: A Case Report

[Year:2020] [Month:January-April] [Volume:5] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:31 - 33]

Keywords: Antifungal, Candida albicans, Hyperplastic candidiasis, Ill-fitting complete denture, Predisposing factors

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0122  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Oral candidiasis is one of the common fungal infections, affecting the various parts of oral mucosa which is caused by Candida albicans. The pathogenicity of Candida is facilitated by many virulence factors, some of which are those for an observance to host tissues and medical devices and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. Valuation of predisposing factors plays an important role in the treatment of candidal infection. Carefully recording medical history plays a vital role. Topical antifungal application is suggested as a first-line treatment for simple oral candidiasis. Especially in denture wearing patients, it is a common inflammatory reaction, multifactorial etiology, which is usually accompanying by Candida species, particularly C. albicans, because of its high virulence, the capability to adhere and form biofilms on oral cavity mucosa and denture surfaces. This article intensifies the management of oral candidiasis associated with ill-fitting denture commonly encountered in day-to-day dental practice.

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