Journal of Mahatma Gandhi University of Medical Sciences and Technology

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2018 | May-August | Volume 3 | Issue 2

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Original Article

Devesh K Sharma, Simmi Mehra

Foramen Magnum: A Morphological and Morphometric Study in Dried Human Skull Bones of Rajasthan Population and its Surgical Importance

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:41 - 49]

Keywords: Achondroplasia, Arnold–Chiari syndrome, Foramen magnum

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0075  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: The foramen magnum (FM) is a large opening in the base of the skull. The dimensions of FM are clinically important because many vital structure passing through it, viz., the lower end of medulla oblongata, the vertebral arteries, and spinal accessory nerves. It may endure compression such as in cases of FM herniation, FM meningiomas, and FM achondroplasia. The knowledge of FM diameter is needed to determine some malformations such as the Arnold–Chiari syndrome, which shows expansion of the transverse diameter. Materials and methods: The present study was carried out on 75 dry human skulls of unknown age and sex belonging to Rajasthan population by the Department of Anatomy at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. All the measurements were taken with the help of digital vernier calipers. Results: The mean anteroposterior diameter was 35.11 ± 3.12 mm, the transverse diameter was 29.35 ± 3.48 mm, area was 813.94 ± 146.40 mm2, and the FM index was 1.208 ± 0.150. The FM shapes were determined as oval (22.67%), egg-shaped (12.00%), round (14.67%), tetragonal (14.67%), pentagonal (9.33%), hexagonal (16.00%), and irregular (10.67%). Conclusion: This study will be useful for the anatomists, radiologists, neurosurgeons, and orthopedic surgeons.


Original Article

Siddharth Mehta, Kamal Bajaj, Esha Nagpal, Vikas Jharwal

Assessment of the Relationship between Adenoid Tissue and Mandibular Prognathism: A Cephalometric Study

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:50 - 53]

Keywords: Adenoids, Airway, Cephalometry, Head posture, Prognathic mandible

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0076  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mandibular prognathism is associated with enlarged adenoids. Materials and methods: The adenoid tissue dimensions were assessed in 92 females (age: 15–30 years) and further divided into three groups: Group I—normal mandible (76° ≤ SNB ≤ 82°; n = 31); Group II—mandibular retrognathism (SNB < 76°; n = 31); Group III—mandibular prognathism (SNB > 82°; n = 30). All subjects were examined by lateral cephalometry with the head position standardized using an inclinometer. Results and conclusion: Results showed no statistically significant difference in the adenoid tissue dimensions among the three groups. Thus, patients with a prognathic mandible do not show enlarged adenoids.



Garima Gupta, Shashank Gupta, Neha Gupta

Relationship between Human Eye and Different Divergence of Skeletal Class I Pattern: A Correlative Study

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:54 - 60]

Keywords: Divergence, Eye, Pax-6, Pax-9, Skeletal pattern

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0073  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: All the systems in the body are interconnected to form a single structural unit. Scientific evaluations of potential correlations between the stomatognathic system and the eye are based on different scientific approaches. The development of the eye and the stomatognathic system begins at approximately the same time, that is, during the 3rd and 4th week of intrauterine life. Some of the recent studies have shown that the various genes and growth factors involved in the eye formation play an important role in the development of the stomatognathic system also. Aims and objectives: The aim of the present study is to correlate the normal human eye variables with the different growth patterns. Materials and methods: A total of 150 samples were selected. The sample selected for the study ranged in the age group from 18 to 24 years. Individual were subjected to radiographs (lateral cephalograms) and various eye tests. The subjects were divided into horizontal, average, and vertical growth patterns on the basis of the Go-Gn-SN angle. Results: Positive correlation was found between visual acuity and mandibular plane angle among the average growth pattern, and negative correlation was found between visual acuity and mandibular plane angle among the horizontal growth pattern. So, the present study concludes that there is a correlation between the human eye variables and the growth patterns, and thus malocclusion can be anticipated on this basis..



Shubhnav Jain, Chetanya Prakash Gupta

Relationship between Refractive Error and Diabetes Mellitus

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:61 - 62]

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Fasting plasma glucose, Refractive error

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0074  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To investigate the change in the refractive status of patients who were recently diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Methods: The study was performed in the patients recently diagnosed with diabetes using various biochemical tests and clinical examinations. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were measured along with the refractive errors initially and after 4 weeks. The difference between the two was evaluated. Results: The average values of the initial measurement were as follows: FPG level—396 mg/dL, refractive value—+2.0 D. The average values after 4 weeks were as follows: FPG level—202 mg/dL, refractive value—+0.50 D. Conclusion: Refractive error is affected in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.



Sandeep Shivran, Daya C Gupta

Dengue Fever: A Sight-threatening Ailment

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:63 - 65]

Keywords: Dengue fever, Macular edema, Ocular manifestations, Optic neuritis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0077  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. In humans, it is transmitted by the infected female Aedes aegypti mosquito. In dengue fever, the symptoms range from flu-like symptoms to lethal complications, along with ocular manifestations and other positive laboratory findings. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ophthalmic manifestations allied with the dengue fever. Materials and methods: The study was carried out in 150 indoor patients diagnosed with dengue fever. All indoor patients underwent complete systemic and ophthalmic examination in Department of Ophthalmology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Results: A total of 150 patients were diagnosed with dengue fever, of which 95 (63.3%) were men and 55 (36.7%) were women. The study group ranges between 20 years and 60 years. Of the 150 patients, only 88 patients (58.7%) were having ocular manifestations. Subconjunctival hemorrhage is noted in 68 patients (45.3%). Anterior uveitis in 5 (3.3%) patients, panuveitis in 1 (0.7%) patient, retinal hemorrhages in 12 (8%) patients, macular edema in 1 (0.7%) patient, and bilateral optic neuritis in 1 (0.7%) patient. Ocular manifestations resolved in all the cases that came for followup except one case of bilateral optic neuritis. Platelet count improvement also attributed for the same. Conclusion: The inference is that the clinicians should have a heightened awareness of dengue-related ophthalmic complications and should facilitate a prompt referral for ophthalmic assessment and management, so that with early interventions, we can restore the vision.



Latika N Sinha, Devinder Sondhi, Kriti Patel

Immunization in Rajasthan: Progress, Opportunities, and Challenges

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:66 - 69]

Keywords: Newer vaccines, Rajasthan, Vaccine preventable disease

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0071  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: In India many newer initiatives are being taken to control vaccine preventable diseases. Introducing new vaccines will help prevent some 1.3 million children deaths attributed to pneumococcal, meningococcal and rotavirus disease. Meticulous monitoring of temperature with newer technologies like electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (eVIN), enabling real time information on cold chain temperatures, vaccine stocks and flows, use of autodisabled syringes are initiatives for safer service delivery. Materials and methods: Available literature was reviewed to chronologically describe the newer vaccines introduced in Rajasthan in the last decade. With each vaccine the challenges in coverage were reviewed. Simultaneous availability in the private sector and costs involved have also been stated. Results: In Rajasthan injectable polio, pentavalent, rotavirus pneumococcal vaccine, measles-rubella are the newer vaccines introduces in the last decade. Positive policy support, sustained funding mechanism, strong collaboration along with a strong and responsive health system have helped to attain coverage of these vaccines among the underserved. Conclusion: All newer vaccines introduced will have an impact on reducing the infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate, if the implementation of routine immunization and acceptance of vaccines is achieved by all concerned stakeholders. Continued support of pediatricians is important to sustain acceptance of vaccines, thus improving routine immunization rates. Much will depend on the continued commitment of the state government and the national and international agencies to sustain and upscale the efforts to meet the child survival goals and to meet the sustainable development goals.



Vikram K Jain, Ram M Jaiswal

Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated Severe Fatal Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Rare Entity

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:70 - 72]

Keywords: Mycoplasma is the smallest free-living organism in nature. It is an important and common cause of respiratory infections. It mainly affects children aged more than 5 years and younger adults, causing a varied severity of illness from asymptomatic or upper respiratory infection to severe pneumonias. Hemolytic anemia is known as a rare but severe complication of Mycoplasama infection. In this study, we report on a a 15-year-old male with cold-agglutinin-antibody-associated fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0072  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Harshita Gwalani, Akansha Jharwal, Ashwini Prasad, Harshit Srivastava, Prachi Mital

Endodontic Management of External Replacement Resorption

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volume:3] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:73 - 77]

Keywords: Ankylosis, Calcium hydroxide, Chlorhexidine, Replacement resorption

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10057-0078  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Tooth resorption results from injuries to or irritation of the periodontal ligament and/or pulp. It may arise as a sequalae of traumatic luxation injuries, orthodontic tooth movement, or chronic infections of the pulp or periodontal structures. In extensive traumatic injuries, healing does not take place by the adjacent vital cells and the bone can establish a contact with the root surface, making the tooth an essential part of the bone remodelling system. This phenomenon is termed as dento-alveolar ankylosis. Resorption can occur without any further stimulation and this activity involves osteoclastic resorption dependent on parathyroid-hormone-generated resorption and bacterial invasion. Such teeth elicit a high metallic sound on percussion; on continuous resorptive attacks, the teeth become infra-occluded. Successful management of resorption cannot always be a predicted. However, an experimental approach to manage the initial stage of inflammatory response is to decrease the formation of clastic cells, and to induce repair of damaged root surfaces by cementoblasts. The purpose of this case report wass to review this entity, to discuss factors that influence the occurrence of resorption, and to describe appropriate treatment. A case of external replacement resorption is presented, illustrating previous root canal therapy. After a meticulous diagnosis, a stringent treatment plan was executed. A nonsurgical endodontic therapy was performed with the use of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament. 2% chlorhexidine was used as a final irrigant. A 3-months followup radiograph revealed adequate control of replacement resorption and the tooth was obturated. Subsequent followup showed a perceptible halt in the dento-alveolar ankylosis.


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