Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of significant intellectual disability in the human population. It is caused by the presence of all or a part of a third copy of “chromosome 21 (47, XY, +21 or 47, XX, +21)”. In 1838, Esquirol first described this, later John Langdon Down in 1866 named this syndrome as “mongolism.” These patients are associated with some medical as well as dental disorders. The oral structures that are commonly affected in patients with DS include the tongue (macroglossia), teeth (number and shape), and poor quality of alveolar and jaw bones (osteoporotic-like). This article presents a case of DS in 28-year-old male patient who had been prescribed multiple intentional root canal therapies (RCTs) in both maxillary and mandibular teeth as a part of rehabilitative treatment plan for congenitally missing teeth.
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