Background: Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body and recently there has been an emerging interest in its major role played in various physiological and disease states of the body. Its deficiency is being correlated with pathogenesis, glycemic control, and various complications occurring in patients of diabetes mellitus (DM) in many studies.
Aim and objective: To estimate serum magnesium levels in diabetic patients and correlating it with pathogenesis, duration of diabetes, poor glycemic control, and various complications in our tertiary care hospital patients.
Materials and methods: This is a case-control, prospective study comprising 120 diabetic patients diagnosed as per recommended criteria of ADA and were evaluated at NIMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan. Keeping serum magnesium value threshold of 1.6 mg/dL, all patients were divided into two groups; hypomagnesemic(s) and normomagnesemic(s). Twenty-five healthy age-matched controls were also enrolled and compared.
Results: We observed 120 patients (52.5% males and 47.5% females), with age ranges between 36 years and 78 years; however, 60% of patients were in the range of 40–65 years. Mean serum values in hypomagnesemic, normomagnesemic, and healthy controls were detected in the range 1.54 ± 0.43, 1.81 ± 0.56, and 2.12 ± 0.67, respectively. 60.8% of diabetic patients had one or more diabetic complications; more in hypomagnesemic (83.3%) compared with normomagnesemic (51.9%). Microvascular complications were the most common. A single case of neuromuscular weakness was also detected.
Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is common in patients of type 2 DM (T2DM) and has a negative correlation with its incidence, duration of disease, poor glycemic control, and various complications of DM. The therapeutic potential of serum magnesium is worth exploring via large clinical trials. Since replenishment of serum magnesium is a simple clinical entity, thus, it will be prudent to measure serum magnesium in each diabetic patient and replenish it accordingly.
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