Introduction: The development of receptive endometrium is necessary for successful implantation, which is now considered a rate-limiting step for the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Lately, scratching of endometrium before embryo transfer (ET) is being investigated as a possible technique to increase implantation rate. By improving endometrial receptivity, the endometrial injury might increase implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Materials and methods: A total of 100 patients, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomized into two groups, group I (study group) in which endometrial scratching was done before ET, and group II (control group) in which endometrial scratching was not done. All the patients had previous history of implantation failure at one or more occasions. Results: In group I, 19/35 patients who underwent IVF conceived whereas in group II, 9/30 patients conceived. The conception rate in intervention group was higher than the control group for patients who underwent conventional IVF and this difference was found to be statistically significant, p value 0.049. In group I, 29 (58.0%) babies were born to 50 women who underwent intervention and in group II, 15 babies were born. This difference in carry-home baby rate was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Conclusion: The benefit of luteal phase endometrial injury cannot be refuted and larger multicenter randomized controlled trials are required for conclusive evidence.
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