This study was carried to examine the body image satisfaction and its relationship with self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), and influence of media on body image. Another objective was to observe any existing relationship between gender and body image dissatisfaction.
Materials and methods
Exploration of relationship of body image satisfaction with BMI, media influence, self-esteem, and other variables like socioeconomic demographic data, overall satisfaction in life (academic/professional), and current health status was carried out via a cross-sectional study using 5-item-based Likert scale in 303 participants.
Males showed less concern about body image. Significant relationship of body mass was seen with BMI (p < 0.001), eating attitude (p < 0.001), influence of media (p < 0.001), and self-esteem (p < 0.001). Overweight students had a significantly higher prevalence of dissatisfaction (p < 0.001) than students with low weight who reported a higher body image satisfaction.
To conclude, this study proves that there exists a significant relationship between eating attitude, media influence, and self-esteem with body image. Adequate anticipatory measures are required for improvement in individuality, self-acknowledgment, and individual contrasts while keeping up ideal weight and dynamic lifestyle.
How to cite this article
Soni A, Gaur V, Bhaskar M, Kumar P, Singh S. Body Image in Students: Relationship with Eating, Media Influence, and Self-esteem. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(3):128-134.
Sugar, M. Female adolescent development. New York: Brunner Mazel; 1993.
Goswami S, Sachdeva S, Sachdeva R. Body image satisfaction among female college students. Ind Psychiatry J 2012 Jul;21(2):168-172.
Khor GL, Zalilah MS, Phan YY, Ang M, Maznah B, Norimah AK. Perceptions of body image among Malaysian male and female adolescents. Singapore Med J 2009 Mar;50(3):303-311.
McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA. Body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscle among boys and girls. Health Psychol 2003 Jan;22(1):39-46.
Presnell K, Bearman SK, Madeley MC. Body dissatisfaction in adolescent males and females: risk and resilience. Prev Res 2007 Sep;14(3):3-6.
Cheung PC, Ip PL, Lam ST, Bibby H. A study on body weight perception and weight control behaviors among adolescents in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J 2007 Feb;13(1):16-21.
ter Bogt TF, van Dorsselaer SA, Monshouwer K, Verdurmen JE, Engels RC, Vollebergh WA. Body mass index and body weight perception as risk factors for internalizing and externalizing problem behavior among adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2006 Jul;39(1):27-34.
Bellisle F, Monneuse MO, Steptoe A, Wardle J. Weight concerns and eating patterns: a survey of university students in Europe. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995 Oct;19(10):723-730.
Wardle J, Johnson F. Weight and dieting: examining levels of weight concern in British adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002 Aug;26(8):1144-1149.
Blokstra A, Burns CM, Seidell JC. Perception of weight status and dieting behaviour in Dutch men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999 Jan;23(1):7-17.
Wardle J, Haase AM, Steptoe A. Body image and weight control in young adults: international comparisons in university students from 22 countries. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006 Apr;30(4):644-651.
Stock C, Kücük N, Miseviciene I, Petkeviciene J, Krämer A. Misperceptions of body weight among university students from Germany and Lithuania. Health Educ 2004 Mar;104(2):113-121.
Monneuse MO, Bellisle F, Koppert G: Eating habits, food and health related attitudes and beliefs reported by French students. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997 Jan;51(1):46-53.
Cusumano DL, Thompson JK. Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: exposure, awareness, and internalization. Sex Roles 1997 Nov;37(9-10):701-721.
Harter, S. The construction of the self: a developmental perspective. New York: Guilford; 1999.
Dorak F. Self-esteem and body image of Turkish adolescent girls. Soc Behav Pers 2011 May;39(4):553-562.
Horn TS, Newton JH, Evers J. Gender conceptualizations in female high school seniors: relationships with global self-worth and multiple measures of body image. Sex Roles 2011 Sep;65(5-6):383-396.
Mirza NM, Mackey ER, Armstrong B, Jaramillo A, Palmer MM. Correlates of self-worth and bodysize dissatisfaction among obese Latino youth. Body Image 2011 Mar;8(2):173-178.
van den Berg PA, Mond J, Eisenberg M, Ackard D, Neumark-Sztainer D. The link between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents: similarities across gender, age, weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. J Adolesc Health 2010 Sep;47(3):290-296.
Tabachnick, BG.; Fidell, LS. Using multivariate statistics. 5th ed. Boston (MA): Pearson Education; 2006.
Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Bohr Y, Garfinkel PE. The eating attitudes test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychol Med 1982 Nov;12(4):871-878.
Balhara YP, Mathur S, Kataria DK. Body shape and eating attitudes among female nursing students in India. East Asian Arch Psychiatry 2012 Jun;22(2):70-74.
Cooper PJ, Taylor MJ, Cooper Z, Fairbum CG. The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. Int J Eat Disord 1987 Jul;6(4):485-494.
Pook M, Tuschen-Caffier B, Brähler E. Evaluation and comparison of different versions of the Body Shape Questionnaire. Psychiatry Res 2008 Feb;158(1):67-73.
Heatherton TF, Polivy J. Development and validation of a scale for measuring state self esteem. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991 Jun;60(6):895-910.
Gambheera H, Williams S. Shared challenges in psychiatric research in India and Sri Lanka. Indian J Psychiatry 2010 Jan;52(Suppl 1):S80-S82.
Mallick N, Ray S, Mukhopadhyay S. Eating behaviors and body weight concerns among adolescent girls. Adv Public Health 2014 Jul;2014:257396.
Witcomb GL, Arcelus J, Chen J. Can cognitive dissonance methods developed in the West for combatting the ‘thin ideal’ help slow the rapidly increasing prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western cultures? Shanghai Arch Psychiatry 2013 Dec;25(6):332-340.
Rosenblum GD, Lewis M. The relations among body image, physical attractiveness, and body mass in adolescence. Child Dev 1999 Jan-Feb;70(1):50-64.
Rodriguez R, Marchand E, Ng J, Stice E. Effects of a cognitive dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program are similar for Asian American, Hispanic, and White participants. Int J Eat Disord 2008 Nov;41(7):618-625.
Crandall, R.; Reser, A. Attributions and weight-based prejudice. In: Brownell K, Puhl R, Schwartz M, Rudd L, editors. Weight bias: nature, consequences and remedies. New York: Guildford Press; 2005. pp. 83-96.
Khan AN, Khalid S, Khan HI, Jabeen M. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective. BMC Public Health 2011 May;11:379.
Calado M, Lameiras M, Sepulveda AR, Rodríguez Y, Carrera MV. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students. Eur Eat Disord Rev 2010 Sep-Oct;18(5):417-427.
Rodgers R, Chabrol H. The impact of exposure to images of idealized thin models on body dissatisfaction in young French and Italian women. Encephale 2009 Jun;35(3):262-268.
Blond A. Impacts of exposure to images of ideal bodies on male body dissatisfaction: a review. Body Image 2008 Sep;5(3):244-250.
Morris AM, Katzman DK. The impact of the media on eating disorders in children and adolescents. Paediatr Child Health 2003 May;8(5):287-289.
Grilo CM, Masheb RM, Brody M, Burke-Martindale CH, Rothschild BS. Binge eating and self-esteem predict body image dissatisfaction among obese men and women seeking bariatric surgery. Int J Eat Disord 2005 May;37(4):347-351.
Daniali S, Azadbakht L, Mostafavi F. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteem and unhealthy body weight management. J Educ Health Promot 2013 Jul;2:29.
Huang JS, Norman GJ, Zabinski MF, Calfas K, Patrick K. Body image and self-esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors. J Adolesc Health 2007 Mar;40(3):245-251.
Wang, Y.; Wu, Y.; Wilson, RF.; Bleich, S.; Cheskin, L.; Weston, C.; Showell, N.; Fawole, O.; Lau, B.; Segal, J. Childhood obesity prevention programs: comparative effectiveness review and meta-analysis. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013. [cited 2013 Jun]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK148737/.
Khan MA, Mahomed MF, Ashshi AM, Faiz A. Drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Pak J Med Res 2012 Oct-Dec;51(4):127-131.
Shields RK, Clancy CJ, Gillis LM, Kwak EJ, Silveira FP, Massih RC, Eschenauer GA, Potoski BA, Nguyen MH. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections among solid organ transplant recipients. PLoS One 2012 Dec;7(12):e52349.
Prashanth K, Badrinath S. In vitro susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species to commonly used cephalosporins, quinolones and aminoglycosides. Indian J Med Microbiol 2004 Apr-Jun;22(2):97-103.
Armin S, Karimi A, Fallah F, Tabatabaii RS, Alfatemi SM, Khiabanirad P, Shiva F, Fahimzad A, Rahbar M, Mansoorghanaii R, et al Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with nosocomial infection admitted to Tehran hospitals. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis 2015 Oct;3(4):e32554.
Qureshi ZA, Abbasi SA, Mirza IA, Malik N, Amjad A, Sattar A, Ikram A. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species-one year experience in a tertiary care setting. Infect Dis J 2011 Mar;20(1):269-272.
Spencer L, Bubner T, Bain E, Middleton P. Screening and subsequent management for thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 Sep;9:CD011263.
Li M, Yao Q, Xing A. A clinical analysis of 188 cases of pregnancy complicated with critical heart disease. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2014 Nov;39(11):1145-1150.
Bhatla N, Lal S, Behera G, Kriplani A, Mittal S, Agarwal N, Talwar KK. Cardiac disease in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2003 Aug;82(2):153-159.
Gelson E, Curry R, Gatzoulis MA, Swan L, Lupton M, Steer P, Johnson M. Effect of maternal heart disease on fetal growth. Obstet Gynecol 2011 Apr;117(4):886-891.
Arora N, Kausar H, Jana N, Mandal S, Mukherjee D, Mukherjee R. Congenital heart disease in pregnancy in a low-income country. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2015 Jan;128(1):30-32.
Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000 Jul;183(1):S1-S22.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Management of chronic hypertension during pregnancy. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment no.14. AHRQ publication no. 00-E011. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2000.
Ferrer RL, Sibai BM, Mulrow CD, Chiquette E, Stevens KR, Cornell J. Management of mild chronic hypertension during pregnancy: a review. Obstet Gynecol 2000 Nov;96(5 Pt 2):849-860.
Sridharan R, Murthy BN. Prevalence and pattern of epilepsy in India. Epilepsia 1999 May;40(5):631-636.
Viale L, Allotey J, Cheong-See F, Arroyo-Manzano D, McCorry D, Bagary M, Mignini L, Khan KS, Zamora J, Thangaratinam S, et al. Epilepsy in pregnancy and reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2015 Nov;386(10006):1845-1852.
Smyth A, Oliveira GH, Lahr BD, Bailey KR, Norby SM, Garovic VD. A systematic review and meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010 Nov;5(11):2060-2068.
Hazes JM, Coulie PG, Geenen V, Vermeire S, Carbonnel F, Louis E, Masson P, De Keyser F. Rheumatoid arthritis and pregnancy: evolution of disease activity and pathophysiological considerations for drug use. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2011 Nov;50(11):1955-1968.
Velu PP, Gravett CA, Roberts TK, Wagner TA, Zhang JS, Rubens CE, Gravett MG, Campbell H, Rudan I. Epidemiology and aetiology of maternal bacterial and viral infections in low- and middle-income countries. J Glob Health 2011 Dec;1(2):171-188.
UNAIDS: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic. 2010. Available from http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/Global_report.htm
Ioannidis JP, Abrams EJ, Ammann A, Bulterys M, Goedert JJ, Gray L, Korber BT, Mayaux MJ, Mofenson LM, Newell ML, et al. Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by pregnant women with RNA virus loads <1000 copies/ml. J Infect Dis 2001 Feb;183(4):539-545.
Anglemyer A, Rutherford GW, Horvath T, Baggaley RC, Egger M, Siegfried N. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Apr;4:CD009153.
Rimoin DL, Connor JM, Pyeritz RE, Korf BR. Emery and Rimoin's principles and practice of medical genetics. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2007.
Verma IC, Puri RD. Global burden of genetic disease and the role of genetic screening. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2015 Oct;20(5):354-363.
White SJ, Boldt KL, Holditch SJ, Poland GA, Jacobson RM. Measles, mumps, and rubella. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2012 Jun;55(2):550-559.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG educational bulletin: viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1998 Nov;63:195-202.
Geeta MG, Riyaz A. Prevention of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B infection. Indian Pediatr 2013;50:189-192.
Swamy GK, Beigi RH. Maternal benefits of immunization during pregnancy. Vaccine 2015 Nov;33(47):6436-6440.
Sukumaran L, McCarthy NL, Kharbanda EO, McNeil MM, Naleway AL, Klein NP, Jackson ML, Hambidge SJ, Lugg MM, Li R, et al. Association of Tdap vaccination with acute events and adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women with prior tetanus-containing immunizations. JAMA 2015 Oct;314(15):1581-1587.
Singru SA, Tilak VW, Gandham N, Bhawalkar JS, Jadhav SL, Pandve HT. Study of susceptibility towards Varicella by screening for the presence of IgG antibodies among nursing and medical students of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Pune, India. J Glob Infect Dis 2011 Jan-Mar;3(1):37-41.
Nathwani D, Maclean A, Conway S, Carrington D. Varicella infections in pregnancy and the newborn. A review prepared for the UK Advisory Group on Chickenpox on behalf of the British Society for the Study of Infection. J Infect 1998;36 (Suppl 1):59-71.
Michaan N, Amzallag S, Laskov I, Cohen Y, Fried M, Lessing JB, Many A. Maternal and neonatal outcome of pregnant women infected with H1N1 influenza virus (swine flu). J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Feb;25(2):130-132.
Smith NM, Bresee JS, Shay DK, Uyeki TM, Cox NJ, Strikas RA. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2006 Jul;55(RR-10):1-42.