Current Issue Volume 2, Number 2 , May-August 2017

RESEARCH ARTICLE
Malvika Sharma, Sweta Gupta, Neha Gupta, Shanoo Sharma

Biofilm Production in Clinical Isolates and their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Rajasthan

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:55-60]



Aims and objectives: This study was carried out to know about the production of biofilm by the microorganisms in various clinical isolates and to compare the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of biofilm- and nonbiofilm-producing organisms.

Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty samples collected from intensive care units for a period of 1 year were taken for the study. Samples included blood, urine, sputum, endotracheal tips, suction tips, pus/swabs, stents/valves, body fluids, etc. Samples were processed and identification of microorganisms and antibiotic sensitivity was tested by methods according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Biofilm production identification was done by tissue culture plate (TCP) method, tube method (TM), and Congo red agar (CRA) plate method.

Results: Out of 150 samples, 108 (72%) samples showed growth of Gram-negative bacilli, 16 (11%) samples showed growth of Gram-positive cocci, and Candida species were seen in remaining 26 (17%) samples. Among the total organisms isolated, 124 organisms (82.66%) showed production of biofilm, while 26 organisms (17.33%) did not produce biofilm. Antibiotic resistance was seen more in biofilm-producing organisms as compared with nonbiofilm-producing organisms.

Conclusion: Most of the biofilm-related infections are characterized particularly by high resistance to antibiotics and persistent infections, in turn leading to a very high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, detection of biofilm production is of high relevance to the clinician for appropriate approach to the treatment.

Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, Biofilms, Device-associated infections, Quorum sensing, Resistance.

How to cite this article: Sharma M, Gupta S, Gupta N, Sharma S. Biofilm Production in Clinical Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Rajasthan. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):55-60.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Kopal Sharma, Pushpawati Jain, Shipra Jain, Chandrabhan Chandrabhan

Evaluation of Computer-assisted Learning Module for Undergraduate Pharmacology Practical Classes

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:61-64]



Introduction: Undergraduate training in pharmacology recently has been reformed with adoptions of new methods of teaching that focus on supportive learning through novel teaching approaches like computer-assisted learning (CAL), integrated teaching, learning by problem-based clinical scenarios.

Materials and methods: This study was done on 125 secondyear professional MBBS students after taking their informed consent. They were first given a pretest questionnaire and then divided into two groups, viz., group I and group II based on their performance in pretest. The CAL sessions were used to teach them experimental pharmacology topics. The performance of the students in the two groups in both pre- and posttests was compared. Students’ perception on the use of CAL for delivering experimental pharmacology training was also assessed.

Results: A statistically significant difference in performance was seen among the students in the pre- and posttests in both the groups. Average scores for groups I and II in the pretest were 11.73 and 19.48 respectively. However, in posttest, the average scores for both the groups increased to 18.91 and 24.79 respectively. About 97% students strongly agreed that CAL sessions were interesting and easy to retain. The students’ knowledge about the disadvantages of CAL was sound.

Conclusion: The study concludes that CAL is a promising teaching option for undergraduate practical sessions in pharmacology. It provides a platform for students to develop a near to real idea of actual experimentation and hence bridges the gap in isolated animal experiments and didactic demonstration classes.

Keywords: Computer-assisted learning module, Experimental pharmacology practicals, Isolated animal experiment.

How to cite this article: Sharma K, Jain P, Jain S, Chandrabhan C. Evaluation of Computer-assisted Learning Module for Undergraduate Pharmacology Practical Classes. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):61-64.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Kanika Jain, Krupali Mistry

Comparative Study on Effects of Active Cycle of Breathing Technique and Manual Chest Physical Therapy after Uncomplicated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:65-68]



Purpose: Pulmonary functions tend to alter after surgeries related to cardiovascular system. This study is designed to compare the effects of Active Cycle of Breathing Technique (ACBT) and Manual Chest Physical Therapy (MCPT) along with incentive spirometry (IS) on pulmonary function after normal Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery.

Materials and methods: Thirty subjects for elective CABG with the age group of 30 to 65 years were randomly assigned to two groups. Group I received treatment of ACBT along with IS and group II received treatment of MCPT along with IS. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate (RR), breath-holding time (BHT), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were recorded on first postoperative day before treatment and fourth postoperative day after treatment with physiotherapy maneuvers.

Results: To compare between the groups, independent paired t-test was performed, while paired t-test was performed to compare all the variables within each group. Significant difference was found in SpO2 (p = 0.003, p < 0.05) and PaO2 (p = 0.011, p < 0.05) with MCPT+IS, and significant difference was found in BHT (p = 0.000, p < 0.05), RR (p = 0.001, p < 0.05), and PaCO2 (p = 0.007, p < 0.05) with ACBT+IS.

Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that both ACBT and MCPT techniques are effective along with IS in postoperative pulmonary functions. Specifically, MCPT is more effective for SpO2 and PaO2, while ACBT is more effective with BHT, RR, and PaCO2.

Keywords: Active cycle of breathing technique, Breath-holding time, Incentive spirometry, Manual chest physical therapy, Respiratory rate.

How to cite this article: Jain K, Mistry K. Comparative Study on Effects of Active Cycle of Breathing Technique and Manual Chest Physical Therapy after Uncomplicated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):65-68.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Ram M Jaiswal, Anjana Mittal, Shweta Sharma, Shubhi Saxena, Haresh Saxena

Role of Capillary Electrophoresis in the Evaluation of Serum Protein Abnormalities: An Experience of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:69-70]



Introduction: Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) has been an integral part of the diagnostic process for more than a decade. It is used mainly to assess the patients for the presence of a monoclonal gammopathy, but it is also useful for detecting humoral immunodeficiency, liver disease, alphaantitrypsin deficiencies, acute phase reaction, chronic inflammation, and various other conditions.

Materials and methods: The present study was conducted on 90 serum samples to detect presence and quantify monoclonal gammopathy in clinically indicated cases.

Conclusion: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) provides highresolution and detailed information about the major protein fractions. Capillary electrophoresis is an exciting new method that may improve the detection of monoclonal gammopathies and other abnormalities.

Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Monoclonal gammopathy, Protein electrophoresis.

How to cite this article: Jaiswal RM, Mittal A, Sharma S, Saxena S, Saxena H. Role of Capillary Electrophoresis in the Evaluation of Serum Protein Abnormalities: An Experience of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):69-70.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Sinni Jain, Shilpa Soni, Manisha Nijhawan, Savita Agrawal

Assessment of Quality of Life in Chronic Dermatoses

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:71-77]



Introduction and aim: Chronic skin diseases are associated with significant morbidity in the form of physical discomfort and impairment of patient’s quality of life (QOL). This study was aimed to assess the impact of various chronic dermatoses on the QOL.

Materials and methods: This was a hospital-based, crosssectional study done on 180 consenting outdoor patients between 20 and 60 years of age clinically diagnosed to have a chronic skin disorder, including acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD), vitiligo, chronic urticaria (CU), or androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for more than 6 months duration. Quality of life was assessed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) QOL-BREF (Hindi version) which had four domains—physical, psychological, social relationship, and environmental health.

Results: Out of total 180 cases, 100 (55.6%) were males and 80 were females (44.4%). Most cases (43.3%) were in the age group of 20 to 30 years. Urban patients (143, 79.4%) were more than rural patients (37, 20.6%). Chronic urticaria and AGA had significant impact on psychosocial domain.

Conclusion: All the six dermatoses showed impact on the patient’s QOL. This raises the need to have an assessment by psychologists and counselors within dermatology services in treating the chronic dermatoses.

Keywords: Chronic skin diseases, Quality of life, World Health Organization quality of life-BREF.

How to cite this article: Jain S, Soni S, Nijhawan M, Agrawal S. Assessment of Quality of Life in Chronic Dermatoses. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):71-77.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Brijesh Sharma, Tushar Bhati, Vikalap Gupta

Predictive Role of Preoperative Ultrasonography in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:78-80]



Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now accepted as the new gold standard for the treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disease. The present study was conducted to look for some preoperative predictor factors in ultrasound that can give surgeons some idea about the potential difficulties and complications that can be encountered during the course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy that may require conversion to open cholecystectomy.

Keywords: Difficult, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Prediction, Preoperative ultrasonographic prediction.

How to cite this article: Sharma B, Bhati T, Gupta V. Predictive Role of Preoperative Ultrasonography in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):78-80.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


RESEARCH ARTICLE
Arun Kumar, Bushra Fiza, Lokesh Jain, Rajeev Kasliwal, Maheep Sinha

Role of Lipid Profile in the Assessment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Prediabetic and Diabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:81-84]



Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic condition ranging from simple steatosis and fatty liver to more severe manifestations like nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Excess fat deposition is common in NAFLD and it is strongly correlated with insulin resistance and associated conditions, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, or hyperglycemic conditions. Most people with NAFLD remain asymptomatic until development of irreversible damage of liver tissue. The present study was planned to study the role of lipid profile in assessment of NASH in prediabetic and diabetic patients with NAFLD. Prediabetic (n = 100) and diabetic (n = 100) patients with NAFLD were enrolled for the study. Of the total 200 patients, 16% confirmed for NASH. Serum cholesterol > 200 mg/dL, triglycerides > 150 mg/dL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 60 mg/dL exhibited a strong association with occurrence of NASH. The study demonstrated that increased cholesterol (p = 0.000) and triglyceride (p = 0.009) and low HDL (p = 0.006) were significant markers in NASH patients. The study therefore recommends that prediabetic and diabetic patients with NAFLD should be regularly screened for lipid levels and patients with dyslipidemia should be considered to be at risk of developing NASH. Early identification of the disease can be helpful in providing timely treatment.

Keywords: Dyslipidemia, Insulin resistance, Lipid profile, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

How to cite this article: Kumar A, Fiza B, Jain L, Kasliwal R, Sinha M. Role of Lipid Profile in the Assessment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Prediabetic and Diabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):81-84.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
K Aparna Sharma, Alka Kriplani

Preconceptional Care

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:85-93]



Pregnancy is one of the most cherished experiences in a woman’s life. However, oftentimes, the outcome is less than ideal. The interventions aimed at improving the outcomes are usually focused on pregnancy and delivery. The problem is, however, not addressed because the genesis of the adverse pregnancy outcomes is much before the pregnancy actually occurs.

How to cite this article: Sharma KA, Kriplani A. Preconceptional Care. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):85-93.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Pratibha Choudhary, Abhilasha Dixit, Deepak Raisingani, Medhavi Sharma, Anubha Sejra, Ashwini Prasad

Enigmatic Maxillary First Molar with Five Canals

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:94-96]



Maxillary first molar has an extremely variable anatomy that makes a successful root canal procedure challenging. This case report describes a nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary first molar with two mesial, two distal, and a palatal canal. It also emphasizes the need of a thorough knowledge of the root canal and its variations to prevent the cases of failure and retreatments.

Keywords: Access, Endodontic therapy, Mesiobuccal canals.

How to cite this article: Choudhary P, Dixit A, Raisingani D, Sharma M, Sejra A, Prasad A. Enigmatic Maxillary First Molar with Five Canals. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):94-96.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Kimi Mittal, Sheetal Bohra, Sangeeta Yadav, Ashish Kakkar

Mandibular Single-incisor Extraction: An Efficient Treatment Approach

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:97-101]



Removal of the mandibular single incisor is an alternative approach to treat some malocclusion. Many treatment strategies are presently used for crowded mandibular anterior dentition that include distalization of posterior teeth, slenderization, extraction of bicuspids, and extraction of mandibular incisors. This report presents the case of a boy aged 17 years with class I type III malocclusion, and the case is treated with lower single-incisor extraction due to the presence of crowding in mandibular anterior teeth, Bolton discrepancy in lower anterior by more than 4 mm, anterior cross bite, and the periodontally compromised single incisor. These all indicated the extraction of mandibular single incisor.

Keywords: Anterior cross bite, Bolton discrepancy, Mandibular incisor extraction, Periodontally compromised incisor.

How to cite this article: Mittal K, Bohra S, Yadav S, Kakkar A. Mandibular Single-incisor Extraction: An Efficient Treatment Approach. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017; 2(2):97-101.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Yogesh Agrawal, Ruchi Agrawal, Vinod Sharma, Jitendra Singh, Pankaj Gupta, Bhawani S Sharma

Spinal Intramedullary Tubercular Abscess

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:102-105]



Introduction: Spinal intramedullary tubercular abscess is an extremely rare entity. Only few cases are reported in published literature.

Case report: A 30-year-old female with known case of pulmonary tuberculosis taking antitubercular treatment (ATT) for the last 6 months presented with back pain and progressive paraparesis. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dorsolumbar spine was suggestive of intramedullary abscess at D3 to D7 vertebrae level; she underwent D2 to D7 laminectomy and evacuation of pus and, subsequently, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining and pus culture. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was seen in both staining and culture of pus. Patient had shown signs of improvement and was discharged on 7th postoperative day.

Conclusion: In tuberculosis abscess, if the patient does not respond to medical management, and if progressive neurological deficit is present, surgery should be done for a definite histological diagnosis and decompression.

Keywords: Intramedullary tuberculosis, Spinal cord tuberculosis, Tubercular abscess.

How to cite this article: Agrawal Y, Agrawal R, Sharma V, Singh J, Gupta P, Sharma BS. Spinal Intramedullary Tubercular Abscess. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):102-105.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Hemant K Sharma, Narendra Padiyar, Pragati Kaurani, Devendra P Singh, Sudhir Meena, Ajay Gupta

Tooth-supported Overdenture using Castable Ball and Socket Attachments

[Year:2017] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:53] [Pages No:106-108]



Dentists have a responsibility to prevent tooth loss whenever possible and everything should be done to keep the patient away from an edentulous state. Overdenture is defined as a removable partial denture or a complete denture that covers and rests on one or more remaining natural teeth, the roots of natural teeth, and/or dental implants (GPT-6). Whenever there is extraction of teeth, resorption of the bone takes place. When tensile stresses are applied on the bone like when occlusal forces are transmitted to the alveolus by the periodontal ligament, additional bone formation takes place. This principle is used in overdenture treatment. Preventive prosthodontics emphasizes upon the importance of procedures that can delay or rectify the future problems in a prosthesis and the overdentures are the optimum method to achieve this requirement. Advantages of overdenture are maintenance of alveolar bone, sensory feedback, minimal load threshold, reduction of psychological trauma, and intact tactile sensitivity discrimination. In this study, we will present a case report of overdenture treatment using castable ball and socket attachments.

Keywords: Ball and socket attachments, Castable, Toothsupported overdenture.

How to cite this article: Sharma HK, Padiyar N, Kaurani P, Singh DP, Meena S, Gupta A. Tooth-supported Overdenture using Castable Ball and Socket Attachments. J Mahatma Gandhi Univ Med Sci Tech 2017;2(2):106-108.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


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